Thursday, February 09, 2006

The World According to Polybius - Book ONE

Had previous chroniclers neglected to speak in praise of History in general, it might perhaps have been necessary for me to recommend everyone to choose for study and welcome such treatises as the present, since men have no more ready corrective of conduct than knowledge of the past. 2But all historians, one may say without exception, and in no half-hearted manner, but making this the beginning and end of their labour, have impressed on us that the soundest education and training for a life of active politics is the study of History, and that surest and indeed the only method of learning how to bear bravely the vicissitudes of fortune, is to recall the calamities of others. 3Evidently therefore no one, and least of all myself, would think it his duty at this day to repeat what has been so well and so often said.

For the very element of unexpectedness in the events I have chosen as my theme will be sufficient to challenge and incite everyone, young and old alike, to peruse my systematic history. 5For who is so worthless or indolent as not to wish to know by what means and under what system of polity the Romans in

less than fifty-three years have succeeded in subjecting nearly the whole inhabited world to their sole government — a thing unique in history? 6Or who again is there so passionately devoted to other spectacles or studies as to regard anything as of greater moment than the acquisition of this knowledge?

2 How striking and grand is the spectacle presented by the period with which I purpose to deal, will be most clearly apparent if we set beside and compare with the Roman dominion the most famous empires of the past, those which have formed the chief theme of historians. 2Those worthy of being thus set beside it and compared are these. The Persians for a certain period possessed a great rule and dominion, but so often as they ventured to overstep the boundaries of Asia they imperilled not only the security of this empire, but their own existence. 3The Lacedaemonians, after having for many years disputed the hegemony of Greece, at length attained it but to hold it uncontested for scarce twelve years. 4The Macedonian rule in Europe extended but from the Adriatic region to the Danube, which would appear a quite insignificant portion of the continent. 5Subsequently, by overthrowing the Persian empire they became supreme in Asia also. But though their empire was now regarded as the greatest geographically and politically that had ever existed, they left the larger part of the inhabited world as yet outside it. 6For they never even made a single attempt to dispute possession of Sicily, Sardinia, or Libya, and the most warlike nations of Western Europe were, to speak the

simple truth, unknown to them. 7But the Romans have subjected to their rule not portions, but nearly the whole of the world and possess an empire which is not only immeasurably greater than any which preceded it, but need not fear rivalry in the future. 8In the course of this work it will become more clearly intelligible by what steps this power was acquired, and it will also be seen how many and how great advantages accrue to the student from the systematic treatment of history.

3 The date from which I propose to begin my history is the 140th Olympiad [220‑216 B.C.], and the events are the following: (1) in Greece the so‑called Social War, the first waged against the Aetolians by the Achaeans in league with and under the leadership of Philip of Macedon, the son of Demetrius and father of Perseus, (2) in Asia the war for Coele-Syria between Antiochus and Ptolemy Philopator, 2(3) in Italy, Libya, and the adjacent regions, the war between Rome and Carthage, usually known as the Hannibalic War. These events immediately succeed those related at the end of the work of Aratus of Sicyon. 3Previously the doings of the world had been, so to say, dispersed, as they were held together by no unity of initiative, results, or locality; 4but ever since this date history has been an organic whole, and the affairs of Italy and Libya have been interlinked
p9
with those of Greece and Asia, all leading up to one end. 5And this is my reason for beginning their systematic history from that date. 6For it was owing to their defeat of the Carthaginians in the Hannibalic War that the Romans, feeling that the chief and most essential step in their scheme of universal aggression had now been taken, were first emboldened to reach out their hands to grasp the rest and to cross with an army to Greece and the continent of Asia.

7Now were we Greeks well acquainted with the two states which disputed the empire of the world, it would not perhaps have been necessary for me to deal at all with their previous history, or to narrate what purpose guided them, and on what sources of strength they relied, in entering upon such a vast undertaking. 8But as neither the former power nor the earlier history of Rome and Carthage is familiar to most of us Greeks, I thought it necessary to prefix this Book and the next to the actual history, 9in order that no one after becoming engrossed in the narrative proper may find himself at a loss, and ask by what counsel and trusting to what power and resources the Romans embarked on that enterprise which has made them lords over land and sea in our part of the world; 10but that from these Books and the preliminary sketch in them, it may be clear to readers that they had quite adequate grounds for conceiving the ambition of a world-empire and adequate means for achieving their purpose. 4 For what gives my work its peculiar quality, and what is most remarkable in the present
p11
age, is this. Fortune has guided almost all the affairs of the world in one direction and has forced them to incline towards one and the same end; 2a historian should likewise bring before his readers under one synoptical view the operations by which she has accomplished her general purpose. Indeed it was this chiefly that invited and encouraged me to undertake my task; and secondarily the fact that none of my contemporaries have undertaken to write a general history, in which case I should have been much less eager to take this in hand. 3As it is, I observe that while several modern writers deal with particular wars and certain matters connected with them, no one, as far as I am aware, has even attempted to inquire critically when and whence the general and comprehensive scheme of events originated and how it led up to the end. 4I therefore thought it quite necessary not to leave unnoticed or allow to pass into oblivion this the finest and most beneficent of the performances of Fortune. 5For though she is ever producing something new and ever playing a part in the lives of men, she has not in a single instance ever accomplished such a work, ever achieved such a triumph, as in our own times. 6We can no more hope to perceive this from histories dealing with particular events than to get at once a notion of the form of the whole world, its disposition and order, by visiting, each in turn, the most famous cities, or indeed by looking at separate plans of each: a result by no means likely. 7He indeed who believes
p13
that by studying isolated histories he can acquire a fairly just view of history as a whole, is, as it seems to me, much in the case of one, who, after having looked at the dissevered limbs of an animal once alive and beautiful, fancies he has been as good as an eyewitness of the creature itself in all its action and grace. 8For could anyone put the creature together on the spot, restoring its form and the comeliness of life, and then show it to the same man, I think he would quickly avow that he was formerly very far away from the truth and more like one in a dream. 9For we can get some idea of a whole from a part, but never knowledge or exact opinion. 10Special histories therefore contribute very little to the knowledge of the whole and conviction of its truth. 11It is only indeed by study of the interconnexion of all the particulars, their resemblances and differences, that we are enabled at least to make a general survey, and thus derive both benefit and pleasure from history.

Comments:
I would like to
find
a singapore airline,
do you have any ideas?
 
Now that we are at a point
of high bandwidth for web users, why do people still worry about keeping webpages they build under 110K??
 
With economists talking of a dual economy emerging in Singapore, the Minister of Finance has announced that he must
>double his salary
|. So I'm thinking of telling my boss I demand my salary be double since they just fired my co-worker and I'm doing all her tasks. See ya in the unemployment line.
 
Nice to see this site for the first time. You all might try to use flash animation. In the past to be bad search engine optimization, but now the
search engines can read it and javascript.
 
Nice job on the site-- you've even managed to entertaining a 84 year old woman. I was showing my mother how to cruise the web, and she's getting quite a kick out of seeing things like guestbooks online after only having signed them in the real world.
She's going to be moving to a retirement center in a month, so the web is not quite "of her generation".
 
Is it me or is China the REAL superpower these days. I mean George Bush has got the usa
so occupied by war, that Americans are distracted from the world stage.
I know China deserves to sit on top of things given their bad luck.
But what with supporting iraq and behavior like that mentioned in this
article they are able to call the shots
more than any other country.
 
As a person that's worked in the airline
industry, I can say that some of the most ridiculous humorous guidelines
and advice given during flights. I'm curiouswhat sites you folkshave run across in
your specific industry which quotes similarly inane public speaking.
 
As a woman that's worked in the airline
industry, I can say that some of the most ridiculous humorous guidelines
and advice given during flights. I'm curiouswhat sites you peoplehave run across in
your specific industry which quotes similarly inane public speaking.
 
Is botox unlocking beauty or plasticity? Here's my take: Just like any other facial procedure, it has some advantages and shortcomings. But what sets it off from other beauty-enhancing solutions is that you can have it instilled right where you need it. Beauty products taken orally are spread throughout the body. Botox goes right into your facial problem spots. Botox Treatment has advantages, but but there can be adverse r
eactions. These have rarely been reported. Some individuals noticed that Botox-treated patients have somehow lost the ability to show authentic facial expressions. There can also be some
infections. These things would have to be clarified thoroughly by a surgeon. So if you're thinking of Botox, consult before you go.
 
Is botox unlocking beauty or plasticity? Here's my opinion: Just like any other facial procedure, it has some advantages and drawbacks. But what sets it off from other beauty-enhancing solutions is that you can have it added right where you want it. Beauty products taken orally are spread throughout the body. Botox goes right into your facial problem spots. has rewards, but but there can be bad r
eactions. These have rarely been reported. Some individuals noticed that Botox-treated patients have somehow lost the ability to show authentic facial expressions. There can also be some
infections. These matters would have to be explained thoroughly by a surgeon. So if you're thinking of Botox, consult before you go.
 
Hello
best chat
Good job.....thanks.....Must be a reason to find friends in your area! Try my page....
Bye
 
asian yachts| housing| garage | building plans| lasik center| remodeling
 
Einstein computer owners are running their cars over their laptops. While bringing out their laptops to the car, many people put them near the wheels for what they think will be a MOMENT. After starting the car and driving off , the laptops are flat like never before.

best lasik| house plan | garage | building plans| computer virus| cell phones babies|
eb-development.html> eccomerce web development

 
Einstein computer owners are running their cars over their laptops. While bringing out their laptops to the car, many people put them near the wheels for what they think will be a MOMENT. After starting the car and driving off , the laptops are flat like never before.

houses | housing| homes| building plans| duel masters| world beaches remodeling |
eb-development.html> eccomerce web development

 
Search engines try it

Casino
viagra
tramadol
cialis
 
Latest news. Viagra, cialis

viagra
cialis
tramadol
 
purchasing a home is filled with potholes more annoying than those you can find when working with with lawyers. You may find scheming brokers, decreasing bank accounts.and home owners you wish were eager to sell.

With a these tips, maybe you can negotiate your way out of unbelievable debt:

1. The motives for buying should be one of these:
Your current house is too tiny
Your existing house is actually too large
It's non-existent
2. Go over your monthly budget. Go over it again. Maybe consider how much you'd hoard by giving up meals.
3. Do careful research. Choose where you'd like to live, check realty ads, meet with brokers. Then select a more sensible one nearest you.
Check this site out, Property Guide , for more info

Beach Clothes| | Vioxx Analy
sis
| LAST CHANCE SALE| Texan Hideaway| magazine writing
 
Hi all!. Use this search engine for best result: TFOsearch Find all you need in your area!
Enjoy
 
Einstein laptop owners are running their cars over their laptops.
As they are taking their notebook computers to the car, many people put them near the wheels for what they think will be a MOMENT. After starting driving off, the laptops are flat like never before.



Woman's health|Hello my Motto
|Angkor Wat Temple in Siem Reap| SECURED CAR LOANS| New Mexico Football Fans| Pearl Jewelry
 
Hi all
The amateur of Sex and Health
ATTENTION!!!
Only for adults!
Persons by whom it was not executed 18 years, the entrance is strictly prohibited!
It costs(stands) spent time, besides free-of-charge registration(To become a member) and numerous frank video(Only for members).
Welcome to Adult Porno & Sex.
Here pages devoted to health are published.
It is the large search robot, which can help to receive this or that information and as to get this or that goods!
Tramadol Xanax Phentermine Skelaxin Viagra and all that is necessary.
G'luck!
 
It's a real show............ Try to find sexy partner in your area !
- JOIN FREE - After free registration you can have unlimited access to the huge adult source.
ATTANTION ! Adult only !...... http://meetfriendny.tripod.com
You won’t believe your eyes, see the World’s best girls HERE!
 
Best flower for you girlfriend
BEST FLOWER

soma or here phentermine
 
Two days http://startso11.info/www.wsa.bielsko.html before, there had been an explosion in the course of the same reaction, in which the investigator had burned his hand.. My children are so well trained, that even when http://storyah44.info/bracia+strzelczyk+nieruchomo%C5%9Bci.html alone their sports are always serious.. Indeed, being of that type which is called shiftless, he was only too happy to be told daily http://startso11.info/www.s%C5%82ownik+angielsko-polsko.pl.html what to do, and to be charged not to be forthputting or in any way original in his discharge of that duty.. Den I open a blacksmith shop, suh, http://startso11.info/80.48.142.81.html and made some money and bought some lan'.. Podington was on the shore and running at the top of his speed toward http://startso11.info/PONTIAC.html the horse.. To the suggestion of the slave whom he had in charge for the time being that the articles be laid aside http://startso11.info/zaklad+slusarski+marek.html until he had finished, he would not listen.. And that was just what we http://startso11.info/pedagogika+terapeutyczna.html did.. Three or http://startso11.info/doskona%C5%82emleko+doskona%C5%82emleko.html four only, said Mr.. He had wrecked a railroad and made one, and had operated successful corners http://startso11.info/foto7.pl.html in nutmegs and chicory.. And as Titbottom opened the door, I heard the low words: And Preciosa? Titbottom http://startso11.info/www.suzukimarine.pl.html paused.. The scene then changed to the http://startso11.info/aktywacja+lolo169+39229c7f.html crowded hall of a hotel.. The sending away of the little one, of the genital, in the first http://rebestal.info/darmowe+strony+porno.html dream therefore also refers to the threatened castration.. One youngster http://startso11.info/www.apartamentowiec-etna.pl.html made a political speech from the top of the table; another impersonated Hamlet; and finally Elder Brown was lifted into a chair, and sang a camp-meeting song.. Elder Brown now made an effort to recall the supplemental commissions shouted to him upon his departure, intending to execute them http://wowyesaf.info/s%C4%85d+okregowy.html first, and then take his written list item by item.. These dreams are ever sufficiently mysterious http://rebestal.info/delphi+%2B+terminarz.html by reason of the choice of persons who are made the objects of sex, the removal of all the barriers which cry halt to the dreamer's sexual needs in his waking state, the many strange reminders as to details of what are called perversions.. When one has become familiar with the abundant use of symbolism for the representation of sexual material in dreams, one naturally raises the question whether there are http://startso11.info/www.krainagier.p%3Bl.html not many of these symbols which appear once and for all with a firmly established significance like the signs in stenography; and one is tempted to compile a new dream-book according to the cipher method.. It was stupid to have married so early; I need not have been in so great a http://startso11.info/hotel+alba+ustka.html hurry.. Their board money for the http://startso11.info/kortowo+informacje+olsztyn.html month would be due in three days.. A slight flush crossed the Colonel's cheek as he returned quickly and a little stiffly, On the contrary--er--it may http://startso11.info/www.bip.pyrzyce.um.gov.pl.html make it impossible for me to--er--act in this matter.. Morland--most probably she will invite some of http://startso11.info/pa%C5%84stwowe+szko%C5%82y+policealne+w+Poznaniu.html her friends to meet us...
 
Post a Comment



<< Home

This page is powered by Blogger. Isn't yours?